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The plant adiantum (lat. Adiantum), or adiant, is a genus of ferns of the monotypic family Pteris, numbering about two hundred species. The name of the plant consists of the negating particle “a” (not-, without-), the second part of the word translated from Greek means “moisten”, “moisten”. Adding the meanings of these words, we can interpret the name "maidenhair" as "waterproof plant" - indeed, the leaves of the plant have the property of repelling moisture, while remaining dry.
For its appearance, hakonechloa was named "weeping grass". It features light green foliage that looks like bamboo, which takes on a warm pink tint in the fall. At the end of summer, delicate invisible bundles of spikelets appear between the leaves. Due to the slow rate of reproduction, it still remains exotic in our gardens.
Hakonekloiu can be used anywhere. It is low enough to frame a flower bed or to be planted by a pond, and is attractive enough in itself to be used in a perennial border.
It makes a magnificent container plant that retains its shape for many years and softens the shape of the pot by falling over its edges.
NEW Hakonechloa macra 'All Gold'. One of the most graceful members of the cereal family, native to Japan and deserves a special place in every shady garden.
The height of the bush is 35-40 cm. It grows slowly and in a characteristic way: a compact bush throws out shoots, which, overgrowing in one direction, form an interesting cascade. Differs in foliage that looks like bamboo. For its unusual appearance it was named "weeping grass". At the end of summer, spikelets appear just above the bunch of grass.
Temperature fluctuations in spring and autumn often cause slight reddening of the leaves. The most frost-resistant variety. Zone 4 (5) -9. Location: warm, sheltered from cold winds, semi-shady place. In dry weather, watering is necessary, but it tolerates short periods of drought. Mulching is mandatory for the winter. It is indispensable for a Japanese garden.
In a rather small community of ornamental grasses, new items appear infrequently. And even if some exotic like a dwarf bamboo does appear, it will turn out to be a sissy and fastidious. Not at all like hakonehloa, or Japanese forest grass. With its endurance, it competes with our native cereals and certainly surpasses the varieties of miscanthus, popular among European designers.
With the craze for the Japanese garden, many of its characteristic plants came to Europe. It is pertinent to note that small Japan in terms of plant species diversity will not yield to endless Russia, and its islets are located in three climatic zones: temperate, subtropical and tropical.
Therefore, Japanese designers most often choose those of ornamental plants that are undemanding to care for, unpretentious and never lose their attractiveness.
Hakonechloa macra (Hakonechloa macra) along with bamboo are two of the most popular grains in the Japanese garden. But if bamboo is a taboo topic for the center of Russia, then haconechloa turned out to be an unusually hardy species, perhaps even our north will be too tough for her. Among herbaceous plants, the phenomenon of such adaptability is not uncommon. Let us recall at least the natives of the same Japan: hostu, pakhisandra, astilba.
Firstly, hakonehloa is not represented in the gardens as a natural species, but in several decorative varieties. We have the most famous and widespread among them the most interesting of them "Aureola", which forms spreading rosettes of linear white-motley leaves.
This variety concerns the width and number of stripes, which are practically absent in some leaves. In the middle of summer, flowering straws up to a meter in height appear on the plants, bearing sparse spike-shaped inflorescences of ordinary-looking flowers.
Hakonechloa is hardy, sun-loving, but tolerates some shading. I note that in the spotted penumbra it even prettier, turning into a soft, almost monochromatic, yellow hue.
To find out the preferences of the beginner, we planted the plants in different soil conditions. Worst of all, the cereal grew on heavy clay, the plant had a reduced growth and practically did not grow. The picture was similar on a dry sandy slope. But as soon as a hefty portion of peat was added to the clay, the hakonehloa literally transformed.
It is quite obvious that on heavy loam, it lacked air supply, and on sand, moisture and organic matter. The most favorable conditions for a Japanese woman are in moist, rich medium loam and sun-exposed locations. Any soil becomes more digestible if you add large doses of peat to it.
How the Japanese use haakonehloya in their gardens is unknown. But in the English version of the Japanese garden at the prestigious Chelsea Flowers Show - 2004 (by the way, which received the gold medal of the exhibition), the cereal was planted with three different-sized bushes in an asymmetrical triangle on a vast meadow of moss.
And yet, like many other imitations of the Japanese garden, this one undoubtedly carried its unobtrusive charm.
The Russian version of the "kindergarten for Japan", of course, can also be a fair amount of kitsch. But, since we look at such crafts with the eyes of Europeans, no one will notice this.
Mixborder and mixed compositions with shrubs and conifers.
Dense communities of the "Aureola" variety are good because they contrast with the usual greenery. They are good in separate inclusions in the most unexpected mixed plots based on combinations of color and shape.
In a mixborder, plants are good in large, with a diameter of half a meter, clumps in medium plans. In compositions with shrubs and conifers, place plants in the foreground as a backing of their feet.
Many people like variegated falaris borders, haconechloa in borders is even more spectacular, and besides, it will not torture with difficult-to-control growth. Curb from haakonechloi you can run along the path, border a flower bed or a composition with it.
Individual bushes are planted at intervals of 25-30 cm or a little less often, without setting the task of completely closing their crowns. Hakonehloa blends harmoniously with stone. A very simple, laconic plot will turn out if a pile of boulders (preferably colored, based on compatibility) is ringed with a cereal border, a kind of garden of stones in Russian.
Instead of boulders, you can plant their imitation shrubs with dense crowns. Boxwood, boxwood barberry, spherical thuja, etc. are suitable for this role. An even wider assortment of "stone candidates" formed by a haircut: brilliant cotoneaster and its evergreen brothers, various privet trees, Thunberg barberries, jester and buckthorn, purple willow ...
Shrubs with purple foliage, the varieties of which are found in the vesicle, plum, Thunberg barberry, and scumpia, stand out especially vividly against the background of the cereal.
Coniferous gardens will look very interesting in ring borders made of hakonekhloi.
Array, paving windows filling.
Few have seen the "Aureola" planted in an array. In our garden, it happened by chance, when a bed of cereal divisions collapsed into a single monolith. A gardener friend came to the garden, and from afar, seeing a bright yellow square spot, gasped with delight.
This also opened my eyes to me, who had hitherto seen only a garden bed and nothing else. Indeed, the continuous communities of this cereal, different in outline in the plan, look colorful. From above, they can be leveled with scissors or a trimmer, which can further enhance the effect.
Well-cultivated soil can create a vast community of hakonehloi, a kind of lawn. In office landscaping, for example, it is good to implement this idea in a paving window.
Plants are best planted in early August with a density of 25-36 divs per square meter, then, with regular watering in the same autumn, individual bushes will close into one white-yellow-motley carpet 25-40 cm high. Against this background, even familiar shrubs can shine with a new reading.
Growing ferns in the garden
The total number of presently existing representatives of ferns is about 12 thousand species, of which about 40-50 species are "tamed" in amateur gardens of the North-West. As a rule, these are plants of the temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere, northern Europe, the Far East, and North America.
Observing our forest species gives gardeners the necessary knowledge of their agricultural techniques.
The first condition. Ferns have very delicate leaves - vai. These plants do not like and do not tolerate the wind. Green hedges, curbs, tree crowns, weakening the wind, create the necessary wind. Ferns should be placed in such places.
Second condition. Ferns do not require direct sunlight and can grow in shade and partial shade. In the forest, terrestrial plants receive only 8-10% of sunlight; in the garden, ferns feel great under the canopy of apple trees, ornamental woody plants. Moreover, ferns protect the soil and tree trunks from overheating and drying out.
The third condition. Ferns need constant soil moisture and high humidity to obtain good results. Such conditions exist precisely in damp deciduous forests. Small dense roots do not tolerate overdrying at all, but prolonged flooding should not be allowed. In the forest, plants climb on hummocks, therefore, in the garden, the area with ferns should be raised to a small height with stones, curbs, limestone slabs.
The fourth condition. As a rule, the soil layer in damp deciduous forests is a mixture of semi-rotten leaves, rotten leaves, remnants of last year's stems, twigs. The substrate is saturated with moisture, it is quite breathable, contains a large number of various insects, small animals. Little humus, zero or slightly acidic acidity. However, using common garden soils also gives good results.
There are types of ferns, the cultivation of which requires the creation of different conditions - such as are found in the mountains of Eastern Europe - the Carpathians, Tatras.
So, the main living conditions of our ferns are shade, moisture, wind, light soils.
Ordinary forest ferns do not have sufficient decorative effect, but working with them in the garden will give the amateur florist the necessary experience. In gardening conditions, plants become large, become quite spectacular and attractive.
In lighter deciduous forests, on the stones, you can find a small, 15 cm high fern with double pinnate leaves. It resembles a miniature bracken. Its color is soft green with a velvety shade. Brought to the garden, this fern grows in a small clump. It has several scientific names, one of them - Gymnocarpium dryopteris (Dryopteris linnaeana)... In the same forests, there is another species of golokuchnik - Robert (Dryopteris robertiana). Taller plant - up to 30 cm, marsh color. Left to themselves, the plants grow slowly, but in general they behave quite modestly in the garden.
In the northern regions of the Leningrad Region, in the Vuoksa area, on large forest boulders covered with moss, one can find a small fern with a long creeping rhizome. it common millipede (Polypodium vulgare)... This fern has its own name - sweet root, shows epiphytic tendencies, i.e. he can "crawl" on a rotting tree trunk, a mossy stone. A piece of rhizome with 2-3 leaves planted in the garden will grow. Plant height 10 cm, grows in the surface layer of the soil. Garden forms of this type are more decorative.
Familiar to all bracken (Pteridium aquifolium) - a plant of light forests, thrives on sandy soils, but too big for a small or medium garden.
Kochedyzhnik found in our forests everywhere. Height up to 120 cm. Of the total number of species (over 200), about 12 species are found in Russia.
Common forest form (Athyrium filisfemina) of little interest, garden forms are widespread in gardens. The selection went along the path of creating more graceful forms with unusual sculpts:
Fildiae-Sagittatum - height 30-35 cm, low shape with arched vaults.
Victoria - height 40-50 cm, arrow-shaped vais directed up and to the sides.
Corimbiferum - height 40-50 cm, dissected in a mess of the tops of the wai.
The garden forms of the Nippon gooseberry are rather unusual. Silvery, steel-colored leaves with a reddish tint look especially impressive in the shade.
Pictum - 30 cm high. Silvery arrow-shaped leaves. Fluorescent at dusk.
Orsula "s red, Lady in red - higher forms with silvery sculpts.
On ordinary garden forms, the red-footed kochedyzhnik (A. rubripes) looks good, up to 100 cm in height with a clear pattern of the wai rosette.
In drier places in our forests, there is male dryopteris (Dryopteris filis-mas)... This species has a darker, "dull" marsh color, less dissected leaves than those of the cochinacea. Height - up to 120 cm.
Garden forms are more effective. Here are a few varieties:
Cristata Angustata - height 50 cm, leaves fan-cut at the ends.
Barnessii - height up to 120 cm, erect strong dark green fronds. Withstands autumn frosts.
Graudiceps, Dractylis, Squamulosa - cultivars of average height 40-60 cm with dissected and branched lines in the upper part.
For novice fern lovers (without a doubt, in the world of flower growers these are aesthetes), I recommend starting with two well-known species:
Common ostrich (Matteuccia struthiopteris) - a plant up to 120-130 cm high, with a thick short rhizome. Forms a mass of stolons, with the help of which this aggressor conquers the garden. Strong plant, absolutely resistant. In autumn, with the first frosts, it turns yellow, lays down, for the winter there are dark brown soruses - sporos.
Another stable and aggressive species - sensitive onoclea (Onoclea sensibilis) - height 40 cm, spreads by underground shoots and forms a dense sod, displacing other plants and even shrubs. The root system of both types is located in the surface layer of the soil, up to 10 cm. Propagated by pieces of rhizomes.
Lovers of indoor ferns are well aware of the maidenhair Venus hair. In the mountains of the South Caucasus, this species grows well, we do not, but its North American and Far Eastern relative adiantum pedatum - shows high decorativeness and stability. Plant height 40-50 cm. Planted among the stones, it forms a picturesque hummock - a curtain. It grows slowly. It has several garden forms: Aleuticum - 40 cm, Imbricatum - 20 cm, Minor - 6-8 cm.
A small fern looks more modest, up to 20 cm high, forming a "bush" of wai - woods (Woodsia). We meet woodsia multi-row (W. polistichoides) - Far Eastern species.
Polystichum tripteron up to 40-50 cm high, slightly resembles both bracken and golokuchnik. This genus (Polystichum) is very promising, as it has many garden forms.
Denshtedtia is a short (20 cm) fern with a long creeping rhizome, it can be used as a ground cover plant. More often than others in our gardens occurs hairy dennstaedtia (Dennstaedtia hirsuta).
All of the above species showed good survival, calmly tolerate a decrease in temperatures in winter to minus 40 ° C in conditions of little snow.
If species growing in mountain conditions are involved in the garden, special conditions should be created for them - very good drainage, gravelly soils with a high content of calcium in the soil.
An example is pharmacy comb (Ceterach officinarum) - a plant of the Caucasus and Crimea.
It is very interesting to introduce into the culture rare endemic species of ferns, such as osmunda royal, Japanese, konyogramme - plants of the Far East.
Plants of our zone are included in the Red Book of our country.
Some species can be grown in container form according to the system: in the summer - in the garden, in the winter - in the house. This primarily applies to semi-evergreen and evergreen species, such as Phyllitis scolopendrium from the Caucasus, Cyrtomium sp. From Far Votok, Japan. In the open field, these species live for 2-3 seasons.
Discreet charm, calm, restless wisdom of 400 million years of history of ferns inspire respect, and a decrease in the color gamut of plants requires from you, as a designer, more tension of thought and imagination, a search for new methods of garden design.
What is the combination of the initial letter
Early regrowth of the drop cap and dissolution in the first half of summer (when there is a noticeable pause in the flowering of some perennials), durability and the ability to form decorative curtains allow you to safely plant it in groups on the lawn and near the decorative pond, as well as in the foreground or middle ground of the mixborder, use it as a border ...
Due to its peaceful and "sedentary" character, the initial letter is appropriate both in a small composition, represented by three to five plant names, and in a large mixborder. It is effective both in the massif and in a small group of 1-3 copies.
Try to replicate this natural combination with a leading letter in your garden (photo in the center). The composition features elecampane (left), meat-red highlander and buttercup (right). All these beautiful wild plants have cultural forms.
Low-growing bells, geraniums, cuff, astilba, tradescantia, dicentra, cornflower, as well as buttercup, Florinda's primrose, Fisher's primrose, evening primrose and spotted loosestrife will be excellent neighbors of the drop cap. The yellow flowers of these companions will sound in contrast to the purple candles of the drop cap. But astrantia, monarda and kentrantus will echo the range of flowers of our heroine.
A spectacular trio: lilac candles of the medicinal letter, yellow yarrow umbrellas and a little disheveled monarda heads. Photo by Elena K
Do not be afraid to experiment, mix the initial letter with two-color varieties of aquilegia, whitewashed cornflower and Japanese thistle, pyrethrum baskets, balls of decorative bows, flat, almost horizontal inflorescences of yarrow, more piercing than the initial letter itself, veronics and sage verticals. It will be beautiful surrounded by stunted and creeping shrubs - Japanese spirea ‘Alpina’ and ‘Little Princess’, cinquefoil shrub, ‘Crispa’ notched-leaved willow, silvery creeping willow.
The luxurious curtain of the large-flowered letter is especially good against the background of masonry. The closest neighbors are Japanese spirea, foxglove and catnip. Photo by Vera Grekova
The initial letter, as well as most herbaceous plants, "suits" the neighborhood with ornamental grasses - pike and reed grass, sesleria and fescue, as well as with an openwork haze of filamentous basil. Early awakening allows you to see her bush in combination with small-bulbous or perennial flowering plants (horned viola, brunner, forget-me-not, anemone). The late leaving of the plant allows you to admire the rich green leaves in hoarfrost. Believe me, they are no less attractive than the purple, caramel and marmalade leaves of Heuchera. In addition, the leaves of the drop cap are able to create a neutral green spot in early autumn, which is very suitable for autumn asters, helenium, echinacea.
What are the ferns and their names
Asplenium, bone (ASPLENIUM). The family of aspleyovs.
An interesting group of decorative ferns for flower growers is represented by rocky species, including asplenium (kostenets). Speaking about what kind of ferns there are, the name of this species is mentioned one of the first, since the Kostenets became widespread in central Russia. Aspleniums are irreplaceable on shady rockeries. Their small graceful bushes of feathery openwork leaves extending from a short vertical rhizome are stably decorative.
Types and varieties:
Wall asplenium can be found on the walls of old stone monasteries in central Russia. Leaves are graceful, rounded, leathery, wintering, form a turf 5-10 cm high, growing right in the cracks of the stone.
Asplenium north (A. septentrionale) - small (5-10 cm) fern of rocks of Northern Europe and Asia, with simple, elongated narrow leaves.
Asplenium hairy (A. trichomanes) - the most shade-loving, moisture-loving and thermophilic of the aspleniums. It has graceful evergreen feathery rounded leaves 10-20 cm long.
Growing conditions. In the shade and partial shade, under the canopy of trees, among stones, on a soil rich in lime, well drained. Cover with leaves for the winter.
Reproduction. Asplenium sods grow rapidly and tolerate division well in early spring. Stocking density - single.
Used in shaded rockeries. A. hairy looks interesting in containers installed in the shade. For the winter, plants should be covered with a leaf.
Woodsia (WOODSIA). The family of aspleyovs.
Graceful undersized (3-20 cm) rocky forest ferns with narrow fluffy dense leaves extending from a short horizontal rhizome. Bushes grow very slowly, live a long time (up to 30 years).
Types and varieties:
In central Russia, it is successfully cultivated Woodsia Elbe (W. ilvensis) - a spectacular low bush with pale green leaves. This fern got its name because of its habitat - plants can often be found on the banks of the Elbe. Another interesting view is woodsia multi-row (W. polystichoides).
Look at the photo: this fern has dense feathery narrow leaves.
Growing conditions. Shady areas with rocky, neutral or alkaline soils, does not tolerate overdrying.
Reproduction. By dividing the bush in early spring and late summer.
Woodsia multi-row - rock fern of the Far East. It grows very slowly. But, being planted in suitable conditions (partial shade, placers of crushed limestone, good moisture), it easily takes root and grows normally.
Woodsia Elbe over mountains and rocks it goes far to the north - to the Arctic. It grows well among calcareous stones and in central Russia.
Kochedzhnik (ATHYRIUM). The family of aspleyovs.
The genus contains about 200 species. These are mainly large forest ferns with a thick short rhizome and thin leaves twice or three times feathery. The bush is dense, high (up to 100 cm). The leaves of this fern species are delicate, delicate, new ones grow throughout the season, so the bushes always look young and fresh.
Types and varieties:
More often than others are grown Female kochedyzhnik (A. filixfemina), a common plant in the forests of central Russia.
Kochedyzhnik chinese-reddish (A. sinense = A. rubripes) - fern from the forests of the Far East.
Pay attention to the photo of this fern above: its name fully corresponds to the color of the petioles.
Growing conditions. Kochedzhniki are plants in shady, moderately humid areas with common garden soils. Plants grow in one place for a long time without transplanting and dividing (up to 15 years), do not need fertilization. They form abundant self-seeding.
Reproduction. Propagated by dividing the bush in early spring and late summer. The best planting material is seedlings. But for an ordinary gardener, the reproduction of ferns by spores is a troublesome and lengthy process. Planting density -5 pcs. per 1 m2.
They are planted in groups among low ground cover, as part of wooded "natural gardens".
Female kochedyzhnik differs in delicate delicate thinly dissected light green leaves, collected in a bunch. New leaves grow throughout the season, giving the fern a fresh look even in dry summers. In early autumn, with the onset of frost, the leaves turn yellow and die off.
Multi-rower (POLYSTICHUM). The family of aspleyovs.
This variety is most commonly found in the shady forests of Europe, the Caucasus, East Asia and North America. In forests, they occur sporadically, nowhere forming large spots. The leaves are beautiful, dark green, dense, extending from a short thick rhizome. The name of this fern species is explained by the fact that the leaves of the plant are arranged in many rows.
Types and varieties. Of the numerous species and varieties of the mnogoryadnik, the conditions of central Russia correspond to a greater extent:
Brown's multi-rower (P. braunii) - with shiny leathery wintering leaves.
Multilayer three-part (P. tripteron) - plant of the forests of the Far East, non-wintering leaves.
Multi-row bristle (P. setiferum) - a tall (up to 100 cm) fern with dark green wintering feathery leaves with a serrated edge.
As you can see in the photo and the description of this type of fern, each clove of the plant ends with a bristle.
Growing conditions. Shady areas under the canopy of trees, forest soil, drained, loose, neutral, moderate moisture.
Reproduction. By dividing the bush in early spring or late summer.
Real perennials can grow up to 30 years without transplantation. Stocking density - single.
Eagle (PTERIDIUM). Family of Cyateins.
Orlyak ordinary (P. aquilinum) - grows on all continents of the Earth, forming thickets in the tundra and dry forests of Europe, among the bushes of Australia and on the wastelands of South America, it is absent only in the steppes and deserts.
Pay attention to the photo of this fern species: a large leaf with a rigid trifoliate plate high (up to 150 cm) raised above the ground on dense petioles. The deeply located (up to 50 cm) branching rhizome ensures rapid growth and formation of overgrowth. Decorative from May (beginning of leaf growth) until the first frost, when the leaves acquire a bronze tint.
Able to quickly capture territory. Difficult to eradicate.
Growing conditions. Any loose, especially sandy, soil, in partial shade and in open places.
Reproduction. Sections of rhizomes with buds regenerate in early spring and late summer. Planting density - 16 pcs. per 1 m2.
Forms high, beautiful spots on the edges, along the fences. Its growth should be artificially limited by digging boards, etc., into the soil. Spring-flowering plants can be planted in the bracken thickets: corydalis, anemone, snowdrops, woods.
Remember: bracken is an aggressive plant capable of rapid growth. Therefore, its planting should be fenced off with mechanical obstacles, for example, roofing material or slate, dug into the ground to a depth of 20-30 cm.
The name of the common bracken is associated with the shape of its leaf: pteris in Greek means "wing", and aquila in Latin means "eagle".
Description of ferns
All types of ferns are perennials, with short rhizomes and feathery dissected leaf plates.
The stems are covered with plates and have loops that come into contact with the ground and give new roots. In the lower part of the leaf plates, sporangs are located, with spores in them.
At the moment, there are about 12,000 species of ferns. They grow throughout the earth in swamps and rice fields, in forests with high humidity, and in deserts.
In South Africa, there is a species of Salvinia fern that covers small lakes with a carpet that can withstand a person. And in the countries of South America, in the tropics, there are giant ferns that look like palm trees.
Dwarf epiphytic ferns live in rocky places. Florists show an increased interest in them, using them in compositions with stones and wood.
- Multi-rower. A very interesting and beautiful fern, belongs to the Shchitovnik family and is used for rock gardens, decoration of shaded places under trees. His fronds are used in arrangements. This species grows in moist forests, with coniferous broad-leaved trees, on river slopes and ravines.
- Ostrich feather. Other names of the species can be “ostrich”, “velamkuch”, “black fern”. It got its name for the similarity of its leaf plates with ostrich feathers. It is a spectacular, tall fern that can grow up to 1-1.35 meters in height.
The fern has two different types of leaves: feather-like sterile, up to one and a half meters, which form a funnel, and spore-bearing, small in size with spores.
It grows in fertile soil that is well hydrated and without excess water. It is unpretentious to care for, but with a lack of light, it can die. Not susceptible to diseases and pests.
Used to decorate an alpine slide on the site and to improve the reservoir. Sometimes used in mixborders in combination with flowers such as crocuses, a variety of tulips, hyacinths and daffodils.
Young shoots of the ostrich are eaten in some countries, no more than 20 centimeters in length, they are canned or frozen.
This fern is also used in the treatment of cramps and spasms, as a means of calming the nerves.
- Spikelet, or as it is also called Blehnum spiky, not a common species, protected by law in several countries of Western Europe. Usually grows in hollows, ravines and forests in the shade.
This species is called spicate for its frond, which resemble ears of wheat, and grow directly from the roots without a stem. It is a very large plant, resembling a palm tree in appearance. It has large leaves reaching one meter in length.
A slightly modified rhizome grows up to 50 centimeters, torn with brown scales. Debryanka is difficult to grow, it does not tolerate cold air, drafts and spraying, and at the same time it needs increased moisture.
- Female kochedyzhnik. This species is distinguished by its lacy leaves, a light green shade, striking in contrast to the male shrimp and its coarse leaves. They always grow in close proximity to each other, and for this they were added to the name "female" and "male".
The cochidian is found in shaded areas along the slopes of ravines, peat bogs and forests in the mountains and on flat terrain. Kochedzhnik is called so for the hummocks formed by him in the swampy area.
It can reach up to a meter in height, and its fronds are cut two or three times, and gather in bunches. Its roots are thick and short. He lives in one place for up to 10 years and mainly reproduces by spores.
Its main difference from others is its constantly growing leaves, which are renewed all year round, and not only in spring, and it always looks fresh. In landscape design, it is placed in shady corners, and varieties with a silver and purple hue are especially popular.
- Male shieldworm. This unusual and very beautiful species, grows up to 1.5 meters in height, has a powerful root system, with light and hard green leaves growing on long petioles and forming rosettes. Its spores are protected by the thyroid kidney, which is why the name comes from.
The fern grows very slowly, only by the third year it grows to adult size. His method of reproduction is by dividing the root. And it is used most often for the decoration of gardens and plots. It is the fern who is credited with the legend of the flowering of the fern.
Previously, it was believed that if a blooming fern was found on the holiday of Ivan Kupala, then a person would have the opportunity to see the future and know the world, he would become invisible and could gain power over the world of evil spirits.
- Common centipede. Usually grows in small crevices among rocks, and is not a common species called "sweet root". Distributed in mountains and forests, mountain tundra and the Alps. People call it "oak fern", "viper grass" or "earthen fern".
The centipede has leathery leaves, dense in structure, up to 20 centimeters in length. It is an evergreen plant and retains its color even in winter. The centipede rhizome is creeping, covered with small scales with a brown tint, and has a sweet taste. She is sensitive to excess light.
It is widely used as a garden plant, it grows mainly in greenhouses, but it is also found in the open field. Rhizome and leaves are used as a folk remedy for expectoration, as an analgesic, antiseptic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, choleretic and laxative.
So is the raw material for the production of essential oil. But it must be remembered that these green plants are dangerous and poisonous, and they cannot be used for treatment.
- Bracken. It is quite common in nature and grows in any areas except deserts. It owes its name to the leaves of an unusual shape. They have an unusual smell, have tanning properties and are used against rot.
It is poisonous and cannot be used to feed pets, but is used for compost due to its high potassium content.
It does not grow in height above 70 centimeters, with a long rhizome and rather tough fronds. And although the bracken has beauty and uniqueness, it is rarely used in garden compositions, except for areas close to natural nature.
For treatment, bracken roots are used to cure cough, scrofula and relieve joint pain. It falls under protection in some states, and in China and South Africa, it is used for food, in the form of a vegetable. It is fried, added to salads, stuffed, pickled and salted.
The flour from the ground roots is used for baking bread. Used as a mosquito repellent and for making glue.
- Cittomium Fortune. It will decorate any interior, and in nature it is found throughout Russia, in Japan, China and Korea. It grows both in the shade and in the light, it is resistant to drought. It has roots, orange in color, and large frond, gray-green, with a curved shape, leathery and growing from the ground. The leaves grow up to 60 centimeters, but grows rather slowly.
- The maidenhair is stop-shaped. It is considered a very beautiful fern. It has small openwork leaves, gracefully arranged in a spherical shape and grows up to 60 centimeters. Sori with spores are covered with folded edges of the sheets and are brown in color. It is found in North America and East Asia and is able to withstand temperatures up to 35 degrees. Grows in the shade and on fertile loose soil. It is decorative all season long and looks good on flower beds in the shade, in the garden and on terraces. It is used in the treatment of cough as an expectorant, and for pain in the stomach. It is used to rinse hair, and products are woven from its petioles in Hawaii, as well as in Japan and Canada.
- Asplenium. It is widely used for gardens, and in its natural environment it is found in tropical Australia, Africa, India and New Zealand. Its leaves are not the same as those of other species, and this makes it attractive for home growing. There are two subspecies of Asplenium, they are evergreen and deciduous. His rhizome is creeping, small in size, and fronds are triangular in shape and a light shade of green, gather in rosettes and grow up to 75 centimeters.
In some countries it is used in celebrations. For example, in New Zealand, they are used to line a passage for newlyweds and decorate the wards of young mothers. The healing properties of asplenium have antiviral, antibacterial action, helps against spasms and clears the airways.
- Maidenhair. A small fern for home use, with fragile and delicate leaves with thin petioles.
Azola. A miniature fern that grows in the water and quickly fills the reservoir with its dense greenish plates, which turn red by autumn.
Davallia or cleft foot. It has thin petioles and feather-light plates. It stands out with shaggy reddish rhizomes that hang from the pot, and resemble a rabbit's foot. Above the fern, there are many bright leaves.
Nephrolepis... He is considered by some to be the king of ferns. It was especially popular in the Victorian era, with its openwork lace leaf plates¸ growing up to 50 centimeters.
Platizerium. This fern is also called Flatshorn and Deer Horn. It has large leaves, divided into lobes at the ends. The leafy plates growing in different directions resemble deer antlers, and the middle of the plant is a head of cabbage.
Ferns do not require much maintenance, but for their long life it is better to observe some basic points.
- Lighting. Plants are light-requiring, and it is better to plant them in a lighted place, but protected from direct rays. In the bright sun, they will wither and darken. At home, a window sill or balcony is suitable.
- Temperature. The optimum temperature for ferns will be 15-22 degrees. They love rooms that are well ventilated, but cannot tolerate cold air and drafts.
- Humidity. The soil in the pot should always be moist, it should not be allowed to dry out. But excessive moisture also leads to decay.
- Watering. Subject to the watering regime, the fern will delight the eye for a long time. Watering should be done regularly when the topsoil dries up. In hot weather it is better to water several times a week, and in winter the amount of watering is reduced. It is better to use soft water for watering, boiled or settled for some time.
- Top dressing. It must be done regularly during the growth period. It is better to feed with weak fertilizer solutions once a week. You can use special complexes sold in stores. And in the period from October to February, the plant rests, and feeding is not required.
- Transfer. Repotting is best every year, or after the roots have filled the entire pot. Ferns do not tolerate transplantation very well, and after that they undergo a long recovery. Transplanting is best done in the spring. After planting in a new pot, water it abundantly for two weeks.
- Reproduction. It is carried out in two ways: reproduction by spores and reproduction by dividing the bush. In the natural environment, all ferns reproduce by spores, but in the home version it is better to use the division method. You need to separate young sockets, trying not to damage the roots, and keeping the earth on them. The separated plants are planted in pots and carefully looked after at first.
Fern care problems
If you create good conditions for the plants, then there will be no problems.
But you need to watch out for pests, aphids, thrips and scale insects that can start and damage the fern. When they appear, it is necessary to treat the plant with drugs.
Errors in care are possible that can lead to the death of the plant:
- watering with not warm water
- watering with chlorine
- direct sun hit
- low humidity.
By observing all this, the ferns will live a long time, and will decorate the room with memories of the forests.
Growing ferns at home
Asplenium - effective and unpretentious in suitable conditions
What indoor plants like to live in the garden in the summer?
Ferns grew on our planet millions of years ago. They are one of the first representatives of flora on the globe. Today botany unites more than 10 thousand fern species in one department. In nature, they grow in various conditions - in swamps and meadows, in the jungle and forests of the middle zone, because many species are quite frost-resistant. And, of course, man could not help but tame these spectacular green plants. It is not difficult to grow ferns at home, they grow quickly and easily cope with the task of landscaping the interior. Read our heading on ferns for details on how to grow and reproduce them indoors.
Ferns can be very different in appearance. For some, in general, you can not say that they belong to this family. For example, palleia is a miniature fern with almost perfectly round leaves. And the most unusual of the domestic fossils (as ferns are sometimes called because of their antiquity), the platiterium is something completely unique. Our heading will tell you in detail about these and other ferns, the cultivation of which can be successfully done at home. Some of them are more suitable for such a hobby, others are less, requiring strict adherence to certain temperature regimes. We will help you choose those ferns that need minimal maintenance in indoor conditions, and we will tell you about those that grow beautifully only in conservatories or greenhouses. You can share your experience of growing ferns in the appropriate section of our Forum. Come in - show off your achievements and get practical advice if necessary.
The transplanted plant must be allowed to get used to new conditions, fresh nutritious soil. This can take 2 months. Young plants should be replanted every year, best done in the spring. Experts recommend a transshipment method. With this approach, the root system is not injured. Before proceeding with the transplant, the fern must be watered with plenty of water. You can put the pot in a container of water, then turn it over and pull out the plant along with an earthen lump. It is not necessary to shake off the soil from healthy roots, but if it is clear that rot has formed there, the soil must be shaken off, and the roots are cultivated.
For ferns that grow at home, you need to take nutrient soil. It is sold in specialty stores. It is thoroughly disinfected, there are no pests in it. With each subsequent transplant, the pot should be 4 cm wider. Clay containers work well. It belongs to the materials that perfectly absorb excess water. At the bottom, arrange a 2-2.5 cm drainage layer. After transferring to a new pot, the remaining space is covered with fresh earth. At the end, watered with settled water.
Ferns need to create suitable living conditions. Only in this case they will not lose their attractive appearance and remain attractive for a long time. Bouquets of flowers with fern leaves will look great.